Scientific discovery is the fuel that drives civilization's progress. From anonymous prehistoric fire detectors to current digital scientists, scientists have transformed the world.
There are nine scientists here. Their discovery has had a profound impact on the world and explained how we should adapt to it.
1. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543)
Copernicus is the person who said that the universe moved to the center of the sun. His theory came from observations of planetary orbits, and his claim that the earth moved around the sun quickly spread to Europe and the world.
Prior to the appearance of Copernicus, people generally thought that the sun was moving around the earth, but Copernicus questioned the motion of the sky by observing the movements of the celestial bodies.
He was a self-taught astronomer and a professional economist. In 1514, Copernicus made his theory a simple pamphlet with his friends.
He then wrote a longer book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, which outlines his own theory and supporting data.
This book is meaningful not only because it has changed the way scientists look at the solar system, but also because it shows that when theory and observation are inconsistent, they have to doubt it.
Copernicus' book became the occasion for the scientific revolution in Europe.
2. Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)
Galileo worked as a scientist before the definition of the concept of science. His work spans many fields including astronomy, physics, engineering, mathematics and other subjects.
Galileo was a central figure in the scientific revolution that swept Europe in the 17th century. His record of the nature of Venus, Jupiter and Blackspot was used as a model for careful scientific observation.
Galileo was sent to an intellectual court for supporting Copernicus' theory of the solar center theory, convicted of heresy, and forced to withdraw the claim.
Although he spent his life in house arrest, he continued to base work on writing kinematics and materials science, writing and publishing.
Galileo is a major contributor to the foundation of world knowledge of the solar system, a strong supporter of scientific methods, and a martyr of science.
3. Isaac Newton (1642-1727)
Many scientists think of Isaac Newton as the greatest scientist who ever lived. Newton was a mathematician, astronomer, and physicist at Trinity University and Cambridge University, all of whom showed great interest in all three areas.
He wrote a book called Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematic in 1687 and created three laws of motion and mathematical relations that form the basis of classical mechanics.
Newton also made an important contribution to optical science, including making his first reflective telescope, and in mathematics he invented the concept of what is now called calculus.
All the scientific knowledge of his time gave Newton a new insight and Newton created a new theory based on it.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
If you ask scientists who are the scientists who have had the greatest impact on changing the world, Darwin's name is always the top of the answers.
Darwin wrote a careful record of the kinds of plants and animals he observed during his long journey through the sea. And over the years he came up with a theory to change the world by analyzing the differences he observed.
Evolution is a fact accepted by Darwinian scientists. The fossil record clearly showed that the species gradually changed over time.
Darwin's contribution was to confirm natural selection as a mechanism to explain the change. Darwin's theory changed the scientific view of life on earth in a fundamental way.
5. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
It is difficult for ordinary Austrian clergy to be recorded as a scientist who changed history, but Gregor Mendel was different.
Mendel experimented with peas that he grew up in the monastery where he lived for years. Through prudent observations of the genetic potential of various traits of pea plants, he formulated the basic law of heredity, which was later named after Mendel's law or Mendelian hereditary
Even in the days when there was no knowledge of microscopy or DNA, Mendel discovered the existence of inheritance determinants that we call genes. Mendel also discovered that some genes are dominant and some are dominant.
Mendel's work serves as the basis for modern genetic thinking. In combination with Darwin's evolutionary theory of natural selection, Mendel's law establishes the evolution of species.
6. Marie Curie (1867-1934)
The record of the life of Mary Scourdoughska Curie was always the first. Even if you do not consider the Nobel Prize.
Curie is the first woman to win the Nobel Prize, the first recipient of two Nobel Prizes, the only woman to have received two Nobel Prize, and the only person to receive two Nobel Prizes in two different scientific fields.
All of these records are the result of Curie's groundbreaking research into radioactive and radioactive materials. Curie first published the theory of radiation.
This is actually the first time this term has appeared. She developed a variety of elemental radioisotope extraction techniques and discovered polonium and radium.
Based on her knowledge of radioactive materials, she developed a portable x-ray machine for use in World War I on-site hospitals.
Curie died at the age of 66 due to aplastic anemia due to radiation exposure.
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
Einstein is famous for being a very clever cultural figure. Einstein is also famous for his funny caricatures, but he was actually the most creative and insightful thinker in science history.
Einstein's theory of relativity contributed to his reputation as one of the theories that penetrated all ages. He also defined quantum mechanics, the two major mountains of modern physics.
At the same time, many physicists have published articles on dozens of specialized topics that are challenging to this day. Einstein's work fundamentally changed the way scientists look at the universe.
8. Alan Turing (1912-1954)
British computer scientist, mathematician and cryptographer Alan Turing contributed greatly to the theory that led to the development of computers. Formulated theories of algorithms and machine calculations and proved the theory by creating the world's first programmable computer program.
Turing is therefore the father of computer science and artificial intelligence.
During World War II, Turing quickly developed a theory of computation and cryptography, creating a decipher that allowed Britain to decipher the cipher messages Germany sent to its troops.
9. Stephen Hawking (1942 -)
To find out if a scientist's contribution can make him an important historical figure, it is usually necessary to look at some aspects. But Stephen Hawking does not need this process.
Hawking, a theoretical physicist and cosmologist, has carried out a groundbreaking study of gravitational singularity or the theory of black holes. Hawking has made progress in giant unification theory beyond Einstein, who generally proposed a cosmological model that relies on relativity and quantum mechanics.