Measles is an acute epidemic caused by an infection caused by measles virus, which affects the respiratory tract and causes skin rash. It is characterized by very strong infectiousness, which is especially common in young children, but in principle it can be transmitted to anyone regardless of age.
Measles is most likely to recover completely when treated, but if some symptoms become worse, it may cause other complications and worsen the condition. Statistically, in 2003 alone, more than 3 million cases of measles were reported worldwide, of which about 500,000 deaths occurred.
Once this happens, the body feels hot and noticeable rashes appear. It is highly contagious and can easily spread by coughing or sneezing.
Measles usually occurs within 10 to 12 days of contact with infectious people. Early symptoms include coughing, runny nose, nasal congestion, discomfort, eye irritation, tears and fever, and a small, irregular dark red spot called "Koplik patches" appears on the inside of the cheek after 2 to 4 days . With this symptom, a rash appears on the face and neck, trunk and limbs, palms, and soles. Sometimes even the lymph nodes of an infected person can be infected, which can include diarrhea, vomiting, and eye inflammation.
In addition, some people may not have symptoms until one to two days after infection. However, the absence of symptoms does not mean that it is not contagious.
Most children develop symptoms less than a week, and usually recover after about two days. Coughing can last up to two weeks. However, the risk of secondary infection is not negligible. According to the Royal Children's Hospital in Melbourne, children can have measles, ear infections, and pneumonia or diarrhea and vomiting. In rare cases, encephalitis may lead to serious complications.
Common symptoms of measles are usually strong coughs, runny nose, high fever and eye congestion, and children may have co-flick spots in their mouths before the onset of the rash. In addition, rashes occur between 3 and 5 days after the onset of symptoms, and sometimes up to 40 degrees. The rash begins with red spots on the forehead, gradually expanding down to the face, neck, torso, arms, and legs. These rashes and fever slowly improve and disappear after a few days.
Cause of cause
Measles is caused by viruses in the mucous membranes in the nose and throat of an infected person. Rapidly spreading directly or indirectly to the saliva or mucus of infected children or adults exposed to coughing, sneezing, or contaminated air. Especially when coughing or sneezing, the virus spreads more easily through the particles in the air, making it more infectious. If you are in the same space as the infected person, the probability of infection is higher.
When exposed to the virus, symptoms usually develop after 7 to 14 days. People with measles can spread the disease around four days after the onset of the rash, especially if fever, runny nose, or cough accompany them. And if the immune system is already weakened by diseases like HIV and AIDS, it can spread the disease until the measles has fully recovered.
As mentioned earlier, most people disappear immediately after a few days and are cured from the disease. However, if the elderly or those with weakened immune systems are infected, the possibility of ear infections and pneumonia can not be ruled out. Rarely, it can lead to encephalitis or acute brain inflammation, which can lead to seizures, epilepsy, mental retardation, paralysis, and, if serious, death. In some cases, an attack may also be applied to the digestive system, the heart muscle, or the kidneys.
Most children will be screened at the hospital, treated at home and recovered. Because of the virus, no antibiotics are needed. Antibiotics do not cure the virus. It is best to stay in isolation at home for at least 4 days and be treated.
In fact, specific therapies for measles have not yet been developed. However, it is prescribed in such a way as to alleviate symptoms such as fever, cough, and other uncomfortable feeling. Also, if the patient is suffering from otitis media, an inflammatory disease of the ear, antibiotics may be administered by a physician.
The important thing is that children should not take aspirin. Aspirin can increase the risk of Reye 's syndrome causing inflammation of the liver and brain. Reye's syndrome is a rare but very serious disease that causes a sudden onset of vomiting and coma in a child infected with a cold or a cold. Severe deaths may result.
The best way to protect your child from measles is through immunization and vaccination of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine between 12 and 15 months.