Pneumonia is a common epidemic that can affect infants and children of all ages. Pneumonia can affect the lungs and interfere with respiration, which in turn can interfere with healthy growth and can lead to serious conditions.
According to UNICEF, pneumonia is an epidemic that most commonly affects the cause of death, especially in children under the age of five. About 16% of children under age 5 died of pneumonia, and the risk is even greater if they are younger than 2 years of age. Nearly half of the causes of childhood deaths related to pneumonia were air pollution, including indoor air pollution.
Pneumonia is an acute infection of the lungs that causes inflammation in the air bladders in the lungs. In alveoli, gas exchange - oxygen from the air - moves into the blood, and carbon dioxide from the blood travels into the air. When the alveoli in the pneumonia causes inflammation and becomes filled with liquid, the lung affects its ability to exchange gas.
Fortunately today, however, few cases of pneumonia have died, and they can be easily recovered by treatment, which is not considered a fatal disease in the developed world. In most cases, pneumonia is caused by a virus infection in the upper respiratory tract, and the virus that causes this infection spreads to the chest and develops into pneumonia. Of course, bacterial infection can also occur.
Some of these can also be transmitted through direct contact with saliva or mucus from a cough or infected person. And if the viral infection weakens the child's immune system, the bacteria grows in the lungs and causes a secondary infection of the original infection.
In addition, children with weakened immune defense due to other diseases such as cystic fibrosis, immune system disorders or cancer are at increased risk of developing pneumonia. In addition, if the lungs develop an abnormality, the risk of developing pneumonia can be several times higher than for other children.
Since pneumonia is a viral or bacterial infection that a person infects others, the risk of getting into close contact with other people in confined spaces is likely to increase. Especially in autumn, winter, and spring. The probability of a child developing pneumonia is not related to temperature or clothing.
Two types of pneumonia
1. Large lobar pneumonia: Cough pneumonia is also called, when one or more lung lobes are involved.
2. Bronchial pneumonia: Bronchial inflammation spreads to the lung tissue, which can occur if bronchitis spreads to the lung parenchyma.
Signs and Symptoms
Like other infectious symptoms, pneumonia also causes general fever symptoms such as fever, chills, and skin flushes. Loss of appetite can make you less energy and helpless than usual, and a child can look pale.
Cause of pneumonia
Viruses and bacteria are the main causes of pneumonia, especially in children, viral pneumonia is more common. However, it is difficult to know whether it is a virus or a bacterium.
1. Viral pneumonia: This pneumonia usually develops over several days, starting with cold, runny symptoms and leading to respiratory illness. Coughing or fever is associated with respiratory disease before it occurs.
2. Bacterial pneumonia: This type is characterized by rapid progression, which causes high fever, cough and respiratory disease. The child may look very tired.
Sometimes bacterial pneumonia occurs during viral infection. In this case, the child usually catches a cold for a few days, but then the speed of progress will be faster.
When triggered by a virus, it is common to take the necessary steps to regulate fever, usually taking a break. However, cough medicines containing codeine or dextromethorphan are not recommended. Cough is needed to eliminate excess secretion from infection. Although cough may last for weeks, viral pneumonia usually improves after a few days, so no other special medication is needed.
Since it is difficult to identify whether pneumonia is viral or bacterial, antibiotics can be prescribed in hospitals. All antibiotics should be given strictly to keep the dosage and recommended dosage. However, usually after a few days, the mood and condition of the children usually improve, so you may want to stop medication in the middle. However, some bacteria are still present and may recur infections, so it is best to stop taking medication and take the drug to the end. Antibiotics are prescribed for bacterial pneumonia.